International tourism in Russia: problems and prospects
Modern international tourism is one of the most developing sectors of the world economy. This is the industry that occupies one of the leading positions in international foreign economic relations, after the oil-producing and engineering industries. He is exit and entry. Outbound tourism is the travel of persons permanently residing in the Russian Federation to another country. Inbound tourism is travel within the Russian Federation of persons not permanently residing in the Russian Federation. This type of tourism develops under the influence of many factors that can be summarized in three groups: demographic, economic, social. International tourism began to develop intensively in the late twentieth century, which had a great impact on the economy of individual countries of the world. After reading books and articles on tourism, we can conclude that currently tourism is a strong global industry, which occupies a small part of the global gross domestic product, where the main means of production and large masses of employees are used.
The purpose of this study is to determine the development trend of international tourism in general, based on the analysis of statistical indicators and forecasts.
Since the beginning of 2000, there has been an increase in tourism income in world trade in services. The most visited region of the world has become Europe, which is also the main supplier of tourists to other regions of the world. The share of income from foreign tourism in the total amount of income from the export of goods and services in Spain is 36%, Greece 37%, Cyprus 51%. The most visited countries of Europe are: France, Italy, Spain, where tourists leave a considerable amount of money for their holidays. In Spain, tourism gives 12% of GDP, which is the most profitable sector of the economy. Tourists visit Italy to see the sights from the World Heritage List, which have 44 objects in the country. If we compare the ratings of countries in the world in terms of tourist attendance for 2013, then we can see that Europe is still the most favorite destination for tourists. According to the forecast for 2020, Europe will be visited by two times more tourists. It is also possible to predict route movements in other countries of the world. By 2020, the top ten countries will be:
China (without Hong Kong),
Hong Kong (China),
Turkey also has the prerequisites for a more active entry into the global tourist market. It is diverse in natural resources, historical and cultural heritage. Therefore, Turkey is the main rival for European countries in the field of tourism services and active recreation.
At the moment, international tourism has an impact on both political and economic ties in the world community. Tourism contributes to the change of the national economy. This is also relevant for the development of international tourism in Russia.
For 2006–2007, Russia had a great potential in the field of tourism, but world tourist arrivals accounted for only 1%. At that time, our country was a donor of the world tourist market, it could not attract tourists like the way Europe attracted, for example. Therefore, all Russians brought income not to their own country, but to other countries of the world. According to the head of the Federal Agency for Tourism for 2006, Russian tourists annually take out more money abroad, while foreign tourists bring much less to the Russian Federation [Zdorov AB Economy of tourism. -M. : Finance and Statistics, 2007.]. There was a decrease in the demand of foreign citizens for holidays in Russia. In 2005, for the purpose of tourism, almost 17% of foreigners came to Russia less than in 2004.
Every year Russia gained its potential, developed in the field of tourism, attracted by developed programs to support tourism. Such programs were “South of Russia”, “Far East and Transbaikalia” and many others. Began a rapid pace of tourism development. Agrotourism began to develop successfully in the country. The purpose of this type of tourism is voluntary assistance for the management of farms and other farms. In Russia, it is more or less developed in Siberian villages, for example, in the Altai region, Ivanovo, Belgorod, Kaluga regions, the Republic of Buryatia, but is still going to begin to actively develop it in the Krasnodar Territory. This type of tourism is popular abroad, especially among Americans.
For 2013, St. Petersburg, Moscow and the cities of the Golden Ring became the most attractive tourism regions for foreigners. Also, foreign tourists are happy to visit Baikal and Kamchatka. It is also noted that the interest of foreign tourists, primarily tourists from the former Warsaw Pact countries and Scandinavia, to Krasnodar Territory and, in the near future, will be restored.